(Original Story at the New York Times here.)
I have said in two previous stories about the Facebook rapist and the teen who admitted to flooding a library that investigators do look online for evidence of crime. Specifically, the police can track your location based on your IP address. Therefore, do not be naive and think that you can get away with online crimes. You are only making it easier for the cops to find you.
In Pursuit of Killer, Police Mine Online Clues
By AL BAKER
Published: May 1, 2011
The four bodies were discarded and hidden in the deep brush along Ocean Parkway on Long Island over a three-year period. They were all women, thought to have been killed by the same person.
And once the victims were identified in January, another common thread emerged: They were all prostitutes who advertised their services on Craigslist.
As Web sites like Craigslist and Facebook have grown in popularity, they have become a resource both for criminals to solicit potential victims and for law enforcement officials in search of suspects.
Terror suspects have plugged into the idea of cybersurveillance to view live traffic feeds, as robbers might case a bank, from the comfort of home. Law enforcement has followed the criminals to these online outposts, as they would follow an informant’s nod to some back alley where a suspect was hiding.
“In my time, in the last decade, it has become increasingly of greater assistance to law enforcement,” John F. Timoney, who served as first deputy commissioner in New York and as chief of the Miami police, said of the Internet.
“In the old days, the flim-flam might have been in front of a bank, or grocery store, where you met the person, where the beginnings of the crime took place. And now it’s on Craigslist.”
The authorities on Long Island are hoping that Craigslist and other online sites will help lead to answers in the Ocean Parkway homicides. So far, 10 sets of human remains have been found in the dunes north of the parkway along the Atlantic Ocean; only the first four have been identified.
An early step has been discerning what clues might be found in all the cyberspace detritus of the four women’s lives.
Each of them — Megan Waterman, 22; Melissa Barthelemy, 24; Maureen Brainard-Barnes, 25; and Amber Lynn Costello, 27 — left behind a digital data trail that detectives can mine for photographs, phone numbers and more.
Craigslist stores classified postings and the Internet Protocol addresses of the computer used to post them. The site might also have e-mail addresses for clients who replied to an advertisement.
From there, detectives with a court order, subpoena or a declaration of an emergency could contact the Internet service providers of the women, and of their clients, to look through e-mails for correspondence.
A cellphone number from an e-mail or a Web log archived by Craigslist could lead down another path: Investigators could contact the cellphone company to obtain call records, stored text messages and geographic location data revealing approximately where people have been, and when.
The Internet Protocol address — unique numbers identifying a computer’s network connection on the Web — can lead to a computer’s location, once a cable or phone company divulges where the subscriber was hooked up.
All the data and electronic leads are being carefully analyzed and evaluated, Dominick Varrone, the chief of detectives at the Suffolk County Police Department, said in an interview.
“Obviously, that is the ongoing emphasis and focus of this investigation,” Chief Varrone said, declining to detail the progress investigators have made on this front.
“We were able to quickly identify those women,” he said. “We have an assigned homicide task force that has been looking at everything; computer records, telephones, and any way you can compare. All of that has been analyzed and has been looked at.”
When investigators in Boston were looking for a suspect who killed a woman and attacked another, who both had advertised massage services on Craigslist, the electronic trail of evidence and clues was substantial.
Through computer and phone records, detectives were able to establish a direct link to the eventual suspect, Philip Markoff, a 22-year-old medical student.
In need of an image of the suspect, they did not have to look far: His photo was on his Facebook page.
“Once we got those communications and we were able to track the I.P. address with subpoenas, it was fairly easy to track a suspect in that case,” said Edward Davis, the police commissioner in Boston. “We expected it to be much more complicated.”
Mr. Markoff, who became known as the Craigslist killer, killed himself while in custody, a little more than a year after his arrest.
Clues from Craigslist also rewarded agents of the federal Drug Enforcement Administration when they turned the tables on suspects said to have used the site in illegally selling Adderall, a powerful stimulant medication.
And the New York City police said it helped them stop a man’s Craigslist-centered fraud of selling hotel rooms at bargain rates after booking them with stolen credit cards. After a few keystrokes, an undercover officer met the suspect at a hotel, paid him and arrested him.
But the Web’s trail of evidence can also go cold. E-mail addresses can be fake; a disposable cellphone may have been used; a public wireless network may have been tapped.
Of course, time is a crucial element in tracing clues left on the Web, said Michael A. L. Balboni, who was a top public safety aide to two New York governors.
“The more time that goes by, the harder it is get that last number dialed,” Mr. Balboni said.
In some ways, he said, the technology can provide a barrier; prostitution was once dominated by streetwalkers or brothels, with fixed locations, and the Web’s adult-services arena takes away a recognizable physical meeting place or point of contact.
But the Web and mobile phones have made things much easier for law enforcement, said Christopher Soghoian, a privacy researcher atIndiana University who has studied the relationship between Internet companies and law enforcement agencies.
“Craigslist has given law enforcement agencies a wealth of data that they never had before,” said Mr. Soghoian, who recently published a paper analyzing the scale of surveillance in the Internet age, much of it undocumented.
The four identified victims on Long Island were reported missing between July 2007 and last September.
In 2009, Craigslist closed down its “erotic services” section — a thinly veiled forum for offering sex services — partly because of pressure from a number of state attorneys general, though similar advertising has since appeared at times on other parts of the Web site.
Mr. Timoney said society had yet to think through all the thorny legal issues, like questions of invasion of privacy, connected to law enforcement’s surveillance of Internet advertising and social networking sites.
“The courts haven’t really chimed in yet,” he said.
“But they are going to. It is only a matter of time before one of these cases goes to the Supreme Court.”
Some analysts say the move by Craigslist to ban adult services may actually impede law enforcement because that activity has been pushed from an observable platform to sites less easily monitored or controlled.
Other Web sites exist as a marketplace for arranging meetings for sex, and at least two of the victims found on Long Island used those as well.
In Ms. Waterman’s case, her online presence is still alive in an advertisement on an adult services Web site, My Provider Guide.
“hi, my name is lexy,” it says. “I have blond hair blue eyes great attitude I love what I do ur time with me is never rushed please no blocked calls and text messages thanks hope 2 hear from u soon.”
It ends by providing a phone number with a Maine area code.